We have to recognize that listening is the most important aspect of communication and to develop the art of listening is a vital aspect of the managemnet process. Like all communication processes, the listening process improves only if you consider yourself responsible for the success of listening and take initiative to keep it effective.
The success of communication lies in two factors: the first is the satisfaction of the communicator that he got a fair and full hearing whatever might be the ultimate decision. The second factor is the insight that the listener gets not only about the facts of the problem but also about the viewpoint and the emotional aspects of the communicator. A manager can create confidence as an open, reasonable and fair person only through reflective listening and on this are based the organizational morale as well as the truly successful public relations.
If we take the bird's eye view of the motivational factors in the two hundred years of modern industry, we find that the management efforts started with the use of fear as the prominent motivational factor to induce time - discipline and task - discipline. The use of monetary incentive to introduce method - discipline was the next step in motivational management. The recognition of the role played by social motivation is the development in the last generation and the realization of motivation for creativity as the most important factor in modern industry has occured in our generation. The Indian manager of today has to deal with an industrial process that has telescoped the two hundred years of western industrial development in to a single generation. Consequently , the manager still has to use fear as a motivating factor - albeit of decreasing importance. In the organized sector industry where trade unions are fairly strong , the threat of firing is no longer easy to implement. Even less drastic disciplinary actions have to be used very sparingly - thus reducing the potency of motivation through fear.
In our industry at Mohan Meakin Ltd Mohan Nagar , Ghaziabad, U.p. India , we added fear of God, Karma theory to work i.e. work is worship and management by human values as new factors for motivation. In some caes it worked well but in some caes one has to take disciplinary action. we provided Jobs till man is creative and working but let me say not beyond 65 or 70 years.